Methodology

Research for this Center report has included examining dozens of books and articles by military officers and civilian Pentagon officials that discuss the relationship between the Defense Department and the press; analyzing thousands of pages of U.S. military documents; reviewing dozens of U.S. and British legal documents; reviewing hundreds of articles by journalists, academics and policy analysts in the United States and Great Britain, viewing hundreds of hours of television coverage and public affairs programs featuring speakers on all sides of the debate; studying transcripts of briefings and news conferences by White House, Pentagon and State Department officials; and interviewing dozens of people who served as military officers, Pentagon officials or journalists during World War II, Korea, Vietnam and the three operations in question. Material used in this study has been restricted as much as possible to primary documents and first-person accounts.