By the numbers

726 complaints

Regarding ‘carbon black,’ a fine, carbon-based dust and possible carcinogen, from the residents of Ponca City, Okla., over an eighteen-year period. Most complaints were closed after inspectors couldn’t physically see carbon black coming out of a plant.

2,000 acres

Size of the tailings, or mining waste, pile from a copper smelter in Hayden, Ariz. Huge dust clouds from the ore pile, which spans more than 3 sq. miles, have at times obscured visibility for the town’s residents.

464 facilities

High-pollution plants the EPA placed on their internal ‘watch list,’ which includes serious or chronic violators of the Clean Air Act.

3,000 ˚F

Heat necessary to incinerate the hazardous waste of the Ash Grove Cement Company, a plant in Chanute, Kan., whose cement kiln falls into a loophole of EPA’s air pollution standards, and emits hundreds of pounds of mercury into the air.

270 days

The minimum delay between the discovery of a Clean Air Act violation, and inclusion on EPA’s ‘watch list.’

20 %

Percentage of reported leads of hazardous air pollution the EPA actually investigates — from there, roughly one-third of those leads result in criminal charges.

74 %

Percentage of increased birth defects in the three counties surrounding ‘Refinery Row,’ in Corpus Christi, Texas, as compared to the rest of the state.