How states pick judges

By

 Updated:

States where judges are appointed

  Commission nominates... Governor appoints Senate
approves
At end of term, election on
whether to
retain
Alaska
 
Arizona
 
California
commission
confirms
Colorado
 
Connecticut
Delaware
District of
Columbia
presidential appointment from judicial
nomination commission, with
senate confirmation
Florida
 
Hawaii
Indiana
 
Iowa
 
Kansas
 
Maine  
 
Maryland
Massachusetts Massa- chusetts
with approval of governor's council
Missouri
 
Nebraska
 
New Hampshire
New Jersey  
New York
 
Oklahoma
 
Rhode Island
with house and
senate confirmation
South Dakota
 
Tennessee
 
Utah
 
Vermont
Wyoming
 

States where judges are elected

  Partisan
election
Nonpartisan election In case of
vacancy,
commission
nominates...
Governor appoints
Alabama    
Arkansas    
Georgia  
Idaho  
Illinois   supreme court appointment
Kentucky  
Louisiana   Vacancies are filled within one year by special election called by the governor. In the interim, vacancies are filled by supreme court appointment. Appointees may not run in the special election.
Michigan    
Minnesota    
Mississippi    
Montana  
Nevada    
New Mexico    
North Carolina  
North Dakota    
Ohio partisan primary; nonpartisan general election  
Oregon    
Pennsylvania Pennsy- lvania  
South Carolina legislative election
Texas  
Virginia legislative election When a vacancy occurs between legislative sessions, the governor makes an appointment who must be confirmed at the next legislative session.
Washington    
West Virginia  
Wisconsin    

Source: American Judicature Society