Police whiter than those they serve

By

 Updated:

July 8, 2016: This story has been updated.

The fatal police shootings of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Philando Castile in Minnesota, and the killings of five police officers in Dallas, have sparked renewed debate over the incendiary issue of law enforcement and race. Both Sterling and Castile were African-American. In 1968, a national commission appointed to examine the roots of urban riots found that in U.S. regions “police have come to symbolize white power, white racism and white repression.” The Kerner Commission urged jurisdictions to recruit more black police officers and assure fair promotion opportunities for them.

Last year, to measure progress toward diversity, the Center for Public Integrity analyzed Census Bureau statistics to compare the demographics of the most populous 50 cities against the ethnic makeup of people there who said they worked in policing. That chart has now been expanded to include the nation’s 100 most populated cities. It’s also been reconfigured to rank jurisdictions by how disproportionate the ethnic divide is between residents overall and people who work in policing. Baton Rouge is among cities showing a stark divide on race; the record in Dallas is better. The Minnesota shooting occurred in a jurisdiction too small to analyze using Census data.

Susan Ferriss

Stockton, California

Police

74% white
|
5% black
|
20% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

24% white
|
11% black
|
39% hispanic or latino
|
26% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Irving, Texas

Police

77% white
|
8% black
|
13% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

33% white
|
12% black
|
41% hispanic or latino
|
15% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Jersey City, New Jersey

Police

64% white
|
13% black
|
22% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

22% white
|
25% black
|
28% hispanic or latino
|
25% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Glendale, Arizona

Police

95% white
|
0% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

53% white
|
6% black
|
35% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

San Bernardino, California

Police

61% white
|
8% black
|
27% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

20% white
|
15% black
|
58% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Chula Vista, California

Police

62% white
|
2% black
|
35% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

22% white
|
5% black
|
56% hispanic or latino
|
17% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Newark, New Jersey

Police

51% white
|
26% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

13% white
|
50% black
|
33% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Buffalo, New York

Police

86% white
|
5% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
38% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Santa Ana, California

Police

47% white
|
2% black
|
43% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities

Residents

10% white
|
1% black
|
78% hispanic or latino
|
11% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Detroit, Michigan

Police

44% white
|
51% black
|
4% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

8% white
|
82% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Sacramento, California

Police

72% white
|
6% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
13% other races and ethnicities

Residents

36% white
|
14% black
|
25% hispanic or latino
|
25% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

San Jose, California

Police

64% white
|
3% black
|
21% hispanic or latino
|
12% other races and ethnicities

Residents

30% white
|
3% black
|
33% hispanic or latino
|
35% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Rochester, New York

Police

74% white
|
18% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

40% white
|
39% black
|
15% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Garland, Texas

Police

70% white
|
16% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

37% white
|
14% black
|
36% hispanic or latino
|
13% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Police

70% white
|
16% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

38% white
|
39% black
|
16% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Aurora, Colorado

Police

81% white
|
6% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

49% white
|
15% black
|
28% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Kansas City, Missouri

Police

86% white
|
6% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

55% white
|
30% black
|
10% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Cleveland, Ohio

Police

66% white
|
25% black
|
7% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

35% white
|
53% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Greensboro, North Carolina

Police

79% white
|
19% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
39% black
|
7% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Boston, Massachusetts

Police

77% white
|
12% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
23% black
|
17% hispanic or latino
|
12% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Cincinnati, Ohio

Police

78% white
|
16% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

49% white
|
44% black
|
3% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Police

89% white
|
7% black
|
3% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

62% white
|
18% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
10% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

St. Paul, Minnesota

Police

84% white
|
7% black
|
0% hispanic or latino
|
9% other races and ethnicities

Residents

57% white
|
15% black
|
10% hispanic or latino
|
19% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Birmingham, Alabama

Police

48% white
|
52% black
|
0% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

21% white
|
74% black
|
3% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Phoenix, Arizona

Police

74% white
|
4% black
|
20% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
6% black
|
40% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Arlington, Texas

Police

72% white
|
10% black
|
16% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

46% white
|
18% black
|
27% hispanic or latino
|
9% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Bakersfield, California

Police

66% white
|
1% black
|
27% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Residents

40% white
|
8% black
|
44% hispanic or latino
|
9% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

St. Louis, Missouri

Police

68% white
|
28% black
|
1% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

42% white
|
50% black
|
3% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Dallas, Texas

Police

55% white
|
28% black
|
14% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

30% white
|
24% black
|
42% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Memphis, Tennessee

Police

54% white
|
43% black
|
1% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

29% white
|
62% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Raleigh, North Carolina

Police

79% white
|
13% black
|
3% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

54% white
|
29% black
|
11% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Anaheim, California

Police

54% white
|
0% black
|
40% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Residents

29% white
|
2% black
|
52% hispanic or latino
|
17% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Houston, Texas

Police

51% white
|
26% black
|
19% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

27% white
|
24% black
|
42% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Charlotte, North Carolina

Police

71% white
|
20% black
|
7% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

47% white
|
34% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Las Vegas, Nevada

Police

72% white
|
7% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
9% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
11% black
|
31% hispanic or latino
|
10% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Anchorage municipality, Alaska

Police

88% white
|
0% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Residents

64% white
|
5% black
|
7% hispanic or latino
|
24% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Orlando, Florida

Police

67% white
|
7% black
|
21% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

43% white
|
27% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Police

62% white
|
36% black
|
1% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

38% white
|
54% black
|
3% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Fresno, California

Police

55% white
|
7% black
|
26% hispanic or latino
|
12% other races and ethnicities

Residents

32% white
|
7% black
|
46% hispanic or latino
|
15% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Long Beach, California

Police

52% white
|
4% black
|
33% hispanic or latino
|
11% other races and ethnicities

Residents

29% white
|
13% black
|
40% hispanic or latino
|
17% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Mesa, Arizona

Police

89% white
|
5% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

66% white
|
3% black
|
25% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Reno, Nevada

Police

87% white
|
0% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Residents

64% white
|
3% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
10% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Baltimore, Maryland

Police

50% white
|
47% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

28% white
|
64% black
|
4% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Police

80% white
|
10% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

58% white
|
14% black
|
16% hispanic or latino
|
12% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Oakland, California

Police

48% white
|
20% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
20% other races and ethnicities

Residents

26% white
|
28% black
|
25% hispanic or latino
|
21% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

St. Petersburg, Florida

Police

87% white
|
4% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
-1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

65% white
|
23% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Durham, North Carolina

Police

61% white
|
37% black
|
0% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

39% white
|
40% black
|
13% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Police

58% white
|
32% black
|
8% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

37% white
|
43% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Columbus, Ohio

Police

81% white
|
16% black
|
1% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

60% white
|
28% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Tulsa, Oklahoma

Police

81% white
|
8% black
|
4% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Residents

60% white
|
15% black
|
13% hispanic or latino
|
12% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Tampa, Florida

Police

68% white
|
15% black
|
15% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

47% white
|
25% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Indianapolis, Indiana

Police

80% white
|
16% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

60% white
|
27% black
|
8% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Riverside, California

Police

55% white
|
17% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

35% white
|
6% black
|
49% hispanic or latino
|
10% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Fremont, California

Police

49% white
|
0% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
39% other races and ethnicities

Residents

29% white
|
3% black
|
14% hispanic or latino
|
53% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Toledo, Ohio

Police

82% white
|
13% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

63% white
|
27% black
|
7% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Henderson, Nevada

Police

89% white
|
5% black
|
0% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

70% white
|
5% black
|
14% hispanic or latino
|
11% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Lubbock, Texas

Police

76% white
|
4% black
|
19% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

57% white
|
8% black
|
31% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Fort Worth, Texas

Police

61% white
|
19% black
|
18% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

43% white
|
18% black
|
33% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Police

66% white
|
28% black
|
1% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
35% black
|
13% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Paradise CDP, Nevada

Police

66% white
|
6% black
|
14% hispanic or latino
|
14% other races and ethnicities

Residents

48% white
|
9% black
|
30% hispanic or latino
|
13% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Chicago, Illinois

Police

49% white
|
32% black
|
18% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

32% white
|
34% black
|
28% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Plano, Texas

Police

77% white
|
10% black
|
12% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

60% white
|
7% black
|
15% hispanic or latino
|
18% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Denver, Colorado

Police

68% white
|
5% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Residents

52% white
|
10% black
|
32% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Miami, Florida

Police

26% white
|
21% black
|
52% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

10% white
|
18% black
|
70% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Police

81% white
|
13% black
|
0% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Residents

65% white
|
26% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Fort Wayne, Indiana

Police

88% white
|
10% black
|
0% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

72% white
|
15% black
|
7% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

New York, New York

Police

49% white
|
22% black
|
23% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Residents

34% white
|
23% black
|
28% hispanic or latino
|
15% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Washington, District of Columbia

Police

48% white
|
42% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

33% white
|
52% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Corpus Christi, Texas

Police

49% white
|
2% black
|
46% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

34% white
|
4% black
|
59% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

El Paso, Texas

Police

29% white
|
1% black
|
70% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

15% white
|
3% black
|
80% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Louisville, Kentucky

Police

84% white
|
13% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

70% white
|
22% black
|
4% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Wichita, Kansas

Police

80% white
|
7% black
|
13% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

66% white
|
11% black
|
14% hispanic or latino
|
9% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

San Antonio, Texas

Police

40% white
|
6% black
|
53% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Residents

27% white
|
6% black
|
62% hispanic or latino
|
4% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Portland, Oregon

Police

86% white
|
1% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities

Residents

73% white
|
6% black
|
9% hispanic or latino
|
12% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Laredo, Texas

Police

17% white
|
0% black
|
83% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

4% white
|
0% black
|
95% hispanic or latino
|
1% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Spokane, Washington

Police

98% white
|
0% black
|
2% hispanic or latino
|
0% other races and ethnicities

Residents

85% white
|
2% black
|
5% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Tucson, Arizona

Police

61% white
|
3% black
|
31% hispanic or latino
|
5% other races and ethnicities

Residents

49% white
|
4% black
|
40% hispanic or latino
|
7% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Norfolk, Virginia

Police

57% white
|
36% black
|
4% hispanic or latino
|
3% other races and ethnicities

Residents

45% white
|
43% black
|
6% hispanic or latino
|
6% other races and ethnicities

Source: 2006-2010 American Community Survey, Equal Employment Opportunity Tabulation | Method

Austin, Texas

Police

60% white
|
7% black
|
31% hispanic or latino
|
2% other races and ethnicities

Residents

49% white
|
8% black
|
35% hispanic or latino
|
8% other races and ethnicities